• Ponding System and it’s importance in POME treatment.
  • Pond Biology, types and role of Microorganisms in BOD, COD, AN removal.
  • Fate of POME in Ponding system and changes observed at each stage/pond.
  • Optimisation of Ponding system and operation to achieve safe discharge levels.
  • BOD of treated POME <20ppm for discharge to water course as well as land.
  • Management of POND solids generated during treatments.
  • Develop cost effective Ponding system.
  • Develop integrated POME treatment programme with recovery of Oil, POME solids and Biogas generation.
  • Zero discharge with effective treatment programme whereby POME is used for conversion of shredded EFB to mature compost with < 40% moisture.
  • Odour control to prevent health hazards
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