Tyre and Road Wear Particles as Microrubber Pollution to Environment - A Review

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Authors: Fatin Afeeqa Mohd Sobri, Nasehir Khan E.M Yahaya, Nor Salmi Abdullah, Norbaya Hashim, Muhammad Azroie Mohamed Yusoff, Noor Haza Fazlin Hashim and Jamilah Karim

Water Quality Laboratory, National Water Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM), Lot 5377, Jalan Putra Permai, 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia

Corresponding author: Fatin Afeeqa Mohd Sobri

Email: [email protected]


Microrubber have been identified as one of microplastics pollution to the environment with particles size below than 5 mm. Sources of this type of pollution have been identified from tyre and road wear particles emerged from the usage of vehicles on the road. This occurs when tyre breaks or moves on the road, releasing microscopic particles that easily move on the surface and end up in natural water sources. The microrubber was discovered to be formed from tyre rubber that had been released either purposely or unintentionally. The distribution of the particles is believed to airborne and deposited to the soil and flash off into water body such as ocean, river and lake. This distribution to the environment will affect aquatic living such as invertebrates, crustacean and also freshwater fish by interrupting the gastrointestinal tract, and delay the hatching process of their eggs and larvae. This review aims to understand formation of microrubber particles, the way of distribution and the effect on environment.

Keywords: microrubber, tyre road wear particles, environment pollution, aquatic living pollution

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